Process optimization for the development of easy-to-cook jackfruit bulbs

Chalani Chathurangi Akmeemana, Indira Wickramasinghe, Piyumi Wanniarachchi, Thisum Vithanage


Overproduction of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) in harvesting seasons and its short post-harvest shelf life make it an underutilized fruit species. The present study was conducted to analyze the feasibility of preparing processed jackfruit products to enhance utilization and reduce wastage. Jackfruit bulbs were cut into 4.5 cm ± 0.5 cm in length and 0.5 cm ± 0.3 cm in width pieces. The two-factor factorial technique was used as the experimental design when developing the products. As factors, the freezing operation and dipping treatment were considered. Hot water extracts of A. heterophyllus leaves and Trachyspermum ammi leaves were used as two dipping treatments and sensory evaluation tests were carried out to determine which dipping treatment is better. T. ammi dipping treatment had better sensory acceptance, and hence continued as the selected dipping method. The effect of freezing (-18 °C for 12 h), pre-cooking time, and rehydration on cooking time was also investigated. Frozen and non-dipped jackfruit bulb pieces had the highest sensory acceptance, hence its proximate composition, DPPH, total phenolic acid, and colourimetric values were determined. Moisture, ash, fat, crude protein and carbohydrate content of the frozen non-dipped jackfruit bulbs were 8.08 ± 0.28 %, 0.88 ± 0.01 %, 0.31 ± 0.03 %, 3.93 ± 0.06 %, 81.09 ± 0.54 % respectively. The colourimetric values (L*, a*, and b*) of the frozen non-dipped jackfruit bulbs were 79.40 ± 0.61, 1.87 ± 0.35, 25.43 ± 1.33, 25.50 ± 1.35 respectively. The results revealed that the freezing operation significantly (P<0.05) reduce the cooking time of jackfruit bulbs. Based on the sensory evaluation results, jackfruit bulbs that were frozen without dipping the T. ammi leaf extract were identified as having the best sensory acceptability. The final processed product possesses a good nutritional profile concerning the ash, fat, crude protein, carbohydrate, mineral content, DPPH and total phenolic acid content.

Keywords: Easy to cook food, jackfruit bulb, Proximate composition.

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