Maturity dependence of quality, quantity and chemical constituents of bark and leaf oil of Ceylon Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume)

Achinini A Wijeweera, Jinasena W Hewage, Godakanda G Jayasinghe, Shriya Hemalika Waduthanthrige, Samanthika R Hettiarachchi, Kitulgala G. G Wijesinghe


The maturity dependence of quality and quantity of bark and leaf oils of Ceylon Cinnamon were studied. Both genetic factors and ecological factors were maintained constant using two accessions of Ceylon Cinnamon, Sri Gamunu and Sri Vijaya, vegetatively cultivated at a field in the same agro-ecological zone, IL1a (601.7820N’; 80033.4990’E; 22.3 amsl.). Three maturity stages of plants, more than 5 years, between 2-2.5 years, and between 1.5-2 years, were used. Morphological analysis in two varieties showed that stick weight, bark dry weight, and leaf dry weight per stick were not significantly different in two varieties at the significance level α = 0.05. When compared the oil contents, Sri Gamunu had a higher oil yield than Sri Vijaya and both showed significantly higher yield at maturity stage of 2-2.5 years which was about the customarily identified maturity for harvesting (~2 years). In Sri Gamunu, about 78 % of bark oil consists of cinnamaldehyde and cinnamyl acetate while those in Sri Vijaya accounts only about 63% with higher content of eugenol and benzyl benzoate. In contrast, eugenol was the major component in leaf oil of cinnamon, which accounts for about 80 % and 87% in Sri Gamunu and Sri Vijaya, respectively. The study revealed that the best maturity stage to harvest both varieties of cinnamon is 2-2.5 years of maturity for maximum quality and quantity of cinnamon bark oil.

Keywords: cinnamon, cinnamon bark oil, cinnamon leaf oil, cinnamon maturity

Full Text:



AOAC International. 1995. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International, sixteenth ed. Arlington, Virginia.

Ariyarathna HBMA, Weerasuriya SN, Senerath WTPSK. 2018. Comparison of morphological and chemical characteristics of two selected accessions and six wild species of genus Cinnamomum Schaeff. Sri Lankan Journal of Biology 3, 11-23.

Azad R, Senanayake G, Wasantha Kumara KL, Ranawaka RAAK, Pushpakumara DKNG, Wijesinghe KGG, Geekiyanage S. 2015. Morphological variation within progeny and deviations from mother plant reveal the allele richness in Cinnamomum verum germ-plasm: a case study from Deiyandara, Matara collection at the early vegetative stage. Tropical Agricultural Research & Extension 18, 163-167.

Central Bank Annual Report. 2017. Central Bank of Sri Lanka, 30, Janadhipathi Mawatha, Colombo 01, Sri Lanka, Appendix 17, Table 73.

Indrasena IK, Induruwa IVADCS, Liyanage T, Wijesinghe KGG, Edirisinghe EDK. 2010. Comparative assessment of oil and coumarin content in bark of cassia (Cinnamomum cassia) and true cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum). Proceedings of International Symposium, University of Ruhuna part I, p. 26.

Jayaprakasha GK, Rao LJ, Sakariah KK. 1997. Chemical composition of volatile oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum buds. Flavour and Fragrance Journal 12, 331-333.

Liyanage T, Madhujith T, Wijesinghe KGG. 2017. Comparative study on major chemical constituents in volatile oil of True Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum Presl. syn. C. zeylanicum Blum.) and five wild cinnamon species grown in Sri Lanka. Tropical Agricultural Research 28, 270-280.

Nabavi SF, Di LorenzoA, Izadi M, Sobarzo-Sánchez E, Daglia M, Nabavi SM. 2015. Antibacterial effects of cinnamon: from farm to food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Nutrient 7: 7729-7748

Paranagama PA, Wimalasena S. Jayatilake GS, Jayawardene AL, Senanayake UM, Mubarak UM. 2001. A comparison of essential oil constituents of bark, leaf, root and fruit of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blum) grown in Sri Lanka. Journal of National Science Foundation Sri Lanka 29: 147-153.

Ranasinghe P, Pigera S, Premakumara GAS, Galappaththi P, Constantine GR, Katulanda P. 2013. Medicinal properties of ‘true’ cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum): a systematic review. BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 13: 275.

Rema J, Krishnamoorthy B, Mathew PA. 1997. Vegetative propagation of major tree spices- a review. Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops 6: 87-105.

Senanayake UM, Lee TH, Will RBH. 1978. Volatile constituents of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) oils. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 26: 822-824.

Singh G, Maurya S, De Lampasona MP, Catalan CAN. 2007. A comparison of chemical, antioxidant and antimicrobial studies of cinnamon leaf and bark volatile oils, oleoresins and their constituents. Food and Chemical Toxicology 45: 1650-1661.

Wijesekara ROB, Jayawardena AL, Rajapakse LS. 1974. Volatile constituents of leaf, stem and root oils of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 25: 1211-1220.

Wijesinghe KGG, Gunarathna WDL. 2003. Response of elite cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) lines for vegetative propagation. Association for the Advancement of Science, 59thAnnual Session, proceedings part I, p. 47

Wijesinghe, KGG, Samaraweera, DN, Jayasinghe, D, Gunaratna, GG. 2004. Development of Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum Presl) selection for higher yields with better quality characteristics. CARP Competitive Contract Research Grants Programme (eds. H.P.M. Gunasena, M.R. Dhanapala & T.U. Tilekawardana), pp 3-10. Sri Lanka Council for Agricultural Research Policy, Wijerama Mawatha.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons Licence
Ruhuna Journal of Science by University of Ruhuna is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

eISSN: 2536-8400

Print ISSN: 1800-279X (Before 2014)