Development of a novel and benign emulsion paint binder from epoxidized soybean oil and dimethylol urea blend

Ayodele Akinterinwa, Sunday Ogwuche, Sunday A Osameahon, Abdulraheem O Anumah


To develop a novel emulsion paint binder, dimethylol urea (DMU) resin synthesized from low formaldehyde to urea stoichiometric ratio (2:1) was blended with epoxidized soybean oil (ESBO) with 2.56 % oxirane oxygen and 67 % iodine value conversion. ESBO/DMU blends were prepared by varying the amount of ESBO from 10 – 70 %. The blends were analyzed for formaldehyde emission, viscosity, refractive index, turbidity, density, gelation time and solubility in water, while the blends’ films were analyzed for moisture uptake and melting point. Homogenous blends were obtained up to 50% ESBO/DMU blend, while FTIR analyses show reactive ESBO/DMU blend at optimum blending. Formaldehyde emission and moisture uptake were reduced in the blends’ film, while ESBO also act as plasticizer by introducing softness in the blends’ film. Comparison of the properties of 40% ESBO/DMU optimum blend with other reported binders shows its good potentials and its capability to compete in the coating industry.

Full Text:



Aigbodion AI, Pillai CKS. 2001. Synthesis and molecular weight characterization of rubber seed oil‐modified alkyd resins. Journal of Applied Polymer Science 79(13): 2431-2438.

Akinterinwa A, Osemeahon SA, Nkafamiya II, Dass PM. 2015. Formulation of Emulsion Paint from a Copolymer Composite of Dimethylol Urea/Polystyrene. Chemistry and Materials Research 7(7): 20-26.

AOAC. 2000. Official method of analysis of AOAC international. Eds: 17th Association of off icial Analytical chemists (AOAC), Washinton, DC.

Barminas JT , Osemeahon SA, 2007. Development of Amino Acid Resin for Paint Formulation: Copolymerization of Methylol Urea with Polyesther. African Journal of Biotechnolgy 6(12): 1432–1440.

Cakir M, Kartal I, Demirer H, Samur R. (2012). Effect of water absorption on the wear behavior of sol-gel processed epoxy/silica hybrids. Scientific Research and Essays 7(7): 805-812.

Cheng W, Liu G, Wang X, Liu X, Jing L. 2015. Kinetics of the epoxidation of soybean oil with H2O2 catalyzed by phosphotungstic heteropoly acid in the presence of polyethylene glycol. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 117(8): 1185-1191.

Edoga MO. 2006. Ethylated Urea-Ether-Modified Urea-Formaldehyde Resins, Part I: Structural and Physicochemical Properties. Leonardo Electronic Journal of Practices and Technologies 9: 121-136.

Fink JK 2013. Reactive Polymers Fundamentals and Applications: A Concise Guide to Industrial Polymers. William Andrew. 187 pp.

Habib F, Bajpai M. 2011. Synthesis and characterization of acrylated epoxidized soybean oil for UV cured coatings. Chemistry and Chemical Technology 5(3): 317-326.

Idowu-Oyewole ET, Osemeahon, SA, Dass PM, Akinterinwa A. 2016. Synthesis and Characterization of an Emulsion Paint Binder from a Copolymer Composite of Trimethylol Urea/Polyethylene. International Journal of Materials Science and Engineering 4(2): 161-171.

Liem H, Etchegoin P, Whitehead KS, Bradley DDC. 2002. Raman scattering as a probe of morphology in conjugated polymer thin films. Journal of Applied Physics 92(2): 1154-1161.

Oladipo GO, Eromosele IC, Folarin OM. 2013. Formation and characterization of paint based on alkyd resin derivative of Ximenia americana (wild olive) seed oil. Environment and Natural Resources Research 3(3): 52.

Osemeahon SA, Barminas JT. 2007. Study of a composite from reactive blending of methylol urea resin with natural rubber. African Journal of Biotechnology 6(6): 810-817.

Osemeahon SA, Nkafamiya II, Maitera ON, Akintreinwa A. 2015. Synthesis and characterization of emulsion paint binder from a copolymer composite of dimethylol urea/polystyrene. Journal of Polymer and Composites 3(2): 11-21.

Pantone V, Annese C, Fusco C, Fini P, Nacci A, Russo A, D’Accolti L. 2017. One-Pot Conversion of Epoxidized Soybean Oil (ESO) into Soy-Based Polyurethanes by MoCl2O2 Catalysis. Molecules 22(2): 333.

Pizzi A, Beaujean M, Zhao C, Properzi M, Huang Z. 2002. Acetal‐induced strength increases and lower resin content of MUF and other polycondensation adhesives. Journal of Applied Polymer Science 84(13): 2561-2571.

Saithai P, Lecomte J, Dubreucq E, Tanrattanakul V. 2013. Effects of different epoxidation methods of soybean oil on the characteristics of acrylated epoxidized soybean oil-co-poly (methyl methacrylate) copolymer. Express Polymer Letters 7(11): 910-924.

Salthammer T, Mentese S, Marutzky R. 2010. Formaldehyde in the indoor environment. Chemical Reviews 110(4): 2536-2572.

Siggia S. 1963. Quantitative organic analysis, eds: 3rd John Wiley & Sons, New York. 103.

Suurpere A, Christjanson P, Siimer K. 2006. Rotational viscometry for the study of urea-formaldehyde resins. Proc. Estonian Acad. Sci. Eng 12(2): 134-146.

Vilas JL, Laza JM, Garay MT, Rodriguez M, Leon LM. 2001. Unsaturated polyester resins cure: Kinetic, rheologic, and mechanical‐dynamical analysis. I. Cure kinetics by DSC and TSR. Journal of Applied Polymer Science 79(3): 447-457.

Yıldız E, I˙nan T, Yıldırım H, Kuyulu A., Gu¨ngo¨r A. 2007. Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Poly(arylene ether ketone)s having Pendant Tertiary Butyl Groups. Journal of Polymer Research 14: 61-66.

Zorba T, Papadopoulou E, Hatjiissaak A, Paraskevopoulos K, Chrissafis K. 2008. Urea-formaldehyde resins characterized by thermal analysis and FTIR method. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 92(1): 29-33.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons Licence
Ruhuna Journal of Science by University of Ruhuna is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

eISSN: 2536-8400

Print ISSN: 1800-279X (Before 2014)